Thorough study of p-n verse

Muhammad Saiful Islam, T. I. M. Salman, Mossabbir Ahmed, Shamsul Alam, Istiuk Mahmud Ayon

Office of EEE, Ahsanullah University or college Of Technology And Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: [email protected] com


With this topic, we've been considering the houses of the semiconductor material. We all calculated electron and gap concentrations in thermal sense of balance and established the position in the Fermi level. We then considered the simply no equilibrium symptom in which surplus electrons and holes can be found in the semiconductor. We now want the situation in which a p-type and an n-type semiconductor happen to be brought into contact with one another to form a p-n junction.


An electronic device regulates the movement of electrons. The study of electronics requires a basis understanding of the relationship between electrons and other aspects of an atom. The movements of electrons within a solid and the binding forces among atoms then can be investigated. This may lead to a knowledge from the differences between conductors, insulators, and semiconductors and to a knowledge of p-type and n- type semiconductor material. Junctions of p-type and n-type material which can be called p-n junction happen to be basic to all or any but an extremely few semiconductor devices. Force act upon bad particals that are next to a p-n junction, and these pushes are changed by the existence of an external bias voltage.

1 . Semiconductor

The construction of each and every discrete stable state computer or bundled circuit begins with a semiconductor material if the highest quality. Semiconductors are a exceptional class of element having conductivity between that of a great conductor which of an insulator. So the attributes of a semiconductor are different from a conductor or insulator. Insulators have a large

banned gap, semiconductors have a narrow unacceptable gap and conductors have zero forbidden distance at all. One more thing that, if we pass high temperature through conductor, it will boost resistance. However in case of semiconductor, their resistivity is definitely decreased and conductivity is increased. Once again if we combine a little sum of impure material with pure semiconductor materials, the conductivity of semiconductor will be increased. Now we need to learn about energy groups to know why a materials becomes director, semiconductor or insulator.

2 . Energy groups

The bad particals of an isolated atom are acted upon simply by the makes within that atom. However , if atoms will be brought nearer together just as a solid, the electrons come under the influence of forces from other atoms. Under these kinds of circumstances the levels which may be occupied bt electrons mix into you possess of energy levels.

Number 1: Energy bands

With any given materials there are two distance strength bands through which electrons may well exist: 1 ) The valance band

2 . The conduction band

Isolating these two rings is an energy gap through which no electrons can normally exist. The gap can be termed as the forbidden difference. The valance band and forbidden band are shown diagrammatically beneath:

3. Bail of shades

Conduction takes place in any provided material for the applied volts causes electrons within the materials to move within a desired direction. This may be due to one or both these styles the two procedure 1 . Electron motion

2 . Hole copy

In electron motion, free electrons inside the conduction group are moved under the influence of the applied electric power field. Since electrons include a negative demand they are repelled from the electric powered...

References: 1 ) David A. Bell (Electronic Devices and Circuits).

2 . Robert D. Boylestad; John Nashelsky (Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory).

3. Donald Neamen (Semiconductor Physics And Devices)

some. Ben. G. Streetman; Sanjay Kumar Banerjy (Solid Condition Electronic Devices)


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