Reasons for product standardization or adaptationThere are countless reasons for which will firms standardize or adjust their item, but the final conclusion is that, you cannot find any firm that is at the extreme end of thespectrum of standardization and adaptation. This kind of assertion is supported andevaluated by Gabrielsson (2004: 41): " The standardization alternatives are aspectrum ranging from complete standardization to a adaptive strategy at differentlevels of marketing blend elements. This kind of part attempts to pinpoint well-known reasons forstandardization or edition. The paradigm of standardization and adaptation is seen in a different way from thefirms' and consumers' perspective in this, from a firm's viewpoint, it is oftencost effective and efficient to standardize products. Whereas coming from theconsumer's viewpoint a product should not be almost

what he (the consumer)wants, but rather


what he or she wishes which basically brings to somedegree the idea of personalization or individualization of products (Albaum et al2005: 401). Relating to Albaum et al (2005: 401): " Adaptation should bemandatory or voluntary''. He further more argued that, ‘mandatory adaptationwould be required because of such things as language differences, differingelectrical systems, differing measurement systems, product technical specs andgovernment requirements. Voluntary adaptation on the other hand is decided by the company as to what tomodify and what variation must be made available for the target market”. Indeciding the shape in which the system is to be sold abroad Czinkota et al(2004: 252) described that there are 3 sets of things to be regarded as namely(1) the market(s) which were targeted, (2) the product as well as characteristicsand (3) company features, such as assets and policy”. In most casesthere is the ought to consider the benefits as well as the disadvantages of both the issue of standardization or adaptation with special emphasis on thecost involved especially in changing a product...


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