Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi 45, 1 (2005) 77-95
NEW HISTORICISM AND RENAISSANCE CULTURE*
Summary New Historicism considers works of literature as famous texts. New Historicism suggests a very subjective approach to literary works and was practiced mainly in Renaissance studies. In respect to fresh historicism, identification is fashioned by sociable institutions. Literary works is another sort of social construct, which is manufactured by the society and in return is lively in reshaping the tradition of that society. Literature is a cultural creation constructed by simply more than one awareness. Therefore , sociable, political, faith based, and financial factors of any given world determine the literature it produces. These ingredients circulate in society through " social energy, " which is encoded in the works of art, which trespasses its historicity and becomes the ways to represent the ideology with the culture through resonant texts. New Historicism ventures this through their suggestion of historicity of texts and textuality of the past. Key words: New Historicism, Historic texts, Renaissance studies, fashioning of personality, social strength, ideology of culture, historicity of text messages, textuality of history.
Özet En yeni Tarihselcilik empieza Rönesans Kültürü Yeni tarihselci edebi yaklaşım edebiyat eserlerini tarihsel bir metin olarak algılar ve metne tarihselci bir yaklaşım önerir. Bu edebi eleştiri akımı öncelikle Rönesans araştırmalarında kullanılmıştır. Yeni tarihselciliğin önerdiği tarih yaklaşımı eserlerin yazıldıkları dönemin sosyal ve kültürel bağlamları göz önünde tutularak nesnel kaygılar gözetilmeden öznel bir bakış açısı ile, sosyal, ekonomik, ve politik yaşam göz önünde bulundurularak sorgulanmasıdır. Yeni tarihselci eleştiriye * Yazarın A New Historicist Account of Medieval/Feudal Contact in English Drama throughout the Renaissance adlı doktora tezinden alınmıştır. ** Atılım Üniversitesi, İngiliz Dili ve Edebiyatı Öğretim Görevlisi.
göre kişiliğin yapılanması öncelikle sosyal kurumların ürünüdür. Yeni tarihselcilik edebi metni sadece bir ürün, eser olarak değil, aynı zamanda bir yaratan, yapılandıran olarak görür. Bir kültürün birikimi ve toplumsal enerjisiyle, yazarın kaleminden ortaya çıkan eser aynı zamanda kendi kültürünün yeniden yapılanmasına katkıda bulunur ve kültürün ideolojisinin anlaşılmasına aracılık eder. Bu sebeple yeni tarihselci edebi yaklaşım metnin tarihselleşmesi ve tarihin metinselleşmesi arasındaki karşılıklı etkilenmeyi inceler. Anahtar sözcükler: Yeni Tarihselcilik, tarihsel metin, Rönesans araştırmaları, kişiliğin yapılanması, toplumsal enerji, kültür ideolojisi, metnin tarihselleşmesi, tarihin metinselleşmesi.
... the governing context of all literary investigations must ultimately always be an historic one. Literature is a human being product, a humane art. It can not be carried on (created), understood (studied), or appreciated (experienced) away from its certain human context. The general scientific research governing that human circumstance is socio-historical. —Jerome L. Mc Gann, The Beauty of Inflections (1988)
1 ) New Historicism: The Critical Perspective The Literary Goal of the 1980s proclaimed a brand new movement in scholarship, which is aptly known as " fresh historicism" by Stephen Greenblatt, who is their leading theorist and practitioner. New historicism is practiced and developed by critics like Louis Montrose, Catherine "" and Alan Liu in the us. New historicists are mainly inspired by The french language philosopher Michel Foucault and American cultural anthropologist Clifford Geertz. in Britain, corresponding theories were set by Cultural Materialists like Catherine Belsey, Jonathan Dollimore, Alan Sinfield and Peter Stalybrass, who are influenced by simply cultural theorist Raymond Williams and also Michel Foucault. The main difference among new historicism and ethnical materialism is their point of leaving. New historicism appeared in the us as a...
Reported: BOOKER, M. Keith. (1996). A Practical Introduction to Literary Theory and Criticism. White Plains, N. Sumado a.: Longman. COX, Jeffrey N., Larry M. Reynolds, Eds. (1993). Fresh Historical Fictional Study: Essays on Reproducing Texts, Which represents History. Princeton, N. T.: Princeton UP. DURING, Claire. (1992). Foucault and Literature: Towards a Genealogy of Writing. Birmingham: Routledge. FORGACS, David, ou. al, Eds. (1986). Contemporary Literary Theory: A Relative Introduction. London, uk: B. Big t. Batsford. FORGACS, David. (1986). " Marxist Literary Theories. " Modern day Literary Theory: A Comparison Introduction. Ann Jefferson and David Robey, Eds. Birmingham: B. Capital t. Batsford Limited. 166-203. FOUCAULT, Michel. (1972). The Archeology of Knowledge. New York: Pantheon Ebooks. GALLAGHER, Catherine. (1989). " Marxism as well as the New Historicism. " The modern Historicism. Veeser, H. Aram, Ed. Nyc: Routledge. 37-36. GEERTZ, Clifford. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures: Picked Essays. Nyc: Basic Catalogs. GREENBLATT, Stephen, Ed. (1988). Representing the English Renaissance. Berkeley: U of California P. GREENBLATT, Stephen. (1988). " Murdering Peasants. " Representing the English Renaissance. Stephen Greenblatt, Ed. Berkeley: U of California L. GREENBLATT, Sophie. (1982). " The Varieties of Power plus the Power of Varieties in the Renaissance. " Genre 15, 3-6. GREENBLATT, Stephen. (1980). Renaissance Self-Fashioning: By More to Shakespeare. Chicago, il: U of Chicago G. GREENBLATT, Stephen. (1990). Shakespearean Negotiations. Oxford: Clarendon Press. GREENBLATT, Sophie. (1990). " The Flow of Social Energy. " Shakespearean Talks. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1-20. MCGANN, Jerome J. (1988). The Beauty of Inflections: Literary Inspections in Historical Method and Theory. Oxford: Clarendon. MONTROSE, Louis A. (1989). " Professing the Renaissance: The Poetics and Politics of Culture. " The New Historicism. Veeser, L. Aram, Ed. New York: Routledge. 15-36.
TILLYARD, At the. M. Watts. (1972). The Elizabethan Community Picture. London, uk: Penguin Ebooks. VEESER, H. Aram, Ed. (1989). Routledge. The New Historicism. New York:
FURTHER READING BROWNISH, Alison Leigh. (2000). On Foucault: A Critical Introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. COX, Jeffrey N. and David Jeff Kastan, Eds. (1997). A New History of Early English Drama. New York: Columbia UP. COX, Jeffrey In. and David Scott Kastan. (1997). " Demanding Background. " A brand new History of Early English Crisis. New York: Columbia UP. 1-6. DOLLIMORE, Jonathan and Alan Sinfield, eds. (1988). Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism. Manchester: Manchester UP. DOLLIMORE, Jonathan. (1988). " Shakespeare, Cultural Materialism, and the New Historicism. " Political William shakespeare: New Essays in Ethnic Materialism. Gatwick: Manchester UP. 1-15. FOUCAULT, Michel. (1979). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Nyc: Vintage Books. FOUCAULT, Michel. (1988). Politics, Philosophy, Lifestyle: Interviews and also other Writings 1977-1984. New York: Routledge. FOUCAULT, Michel. (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Articles, 1972-1977. Brighton, Sussex: Harvester Press. FOUCAULT, Michel. (1991). The Birth of the Center: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. Birmingham: Routledge. FOUCAULT, Michel. (1988). The History of Sexuality. New york city: Vintage Catalogs. FOUCAULT, Michel. (1970). The Order of Things: A great Archaeology of the Human Sciences. London: Routledge. GALLAGHER, Catherine and Stephen Greenblatt. (2000). Practicing New Historicism. Chi town: The University of Chicago, il Press. GRAMSCI, Antonio. (1985). Selections from Cultural Articles. David Forgacs and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, Eds. (Trans. Bill Boelhower). Greater london: Lawrence and Wishart. GREENBLATT, Stephen. (1989). " To a Poetics of Lifestyle. " The New Historicism. Veeser, H. Aram, Ed. Ny: Routledge. 1-14.
New Historicism And Renaissance Culture
GREENBLATT, Sophie. (1991). Learning how to Curse: Works in Early Modern day Culture. Ny: Routledge. HOWARD, Jean. (1986) " The modern Historicism in Renaissance Research. " British Literary Renaissance. 13-43. KASTAN, David Jeff and Peter Stalybrass, Eds. (1991) Setting up the Renaissance: Reinterpretations of Elizabethan and Jacobean Theatre. New York: Routledge. MONTROSE, Paillette. (1986) " Renaissance Fictional Studies plus the Subject of the past. " ELR 16 (1), 5-12. MONTROSE, Louis. (1996). The Purpose of Playing: Shakespeare as well as the Cultural Politics of the Elizabethan Theatre. Chicago, il: Chicago UP. RYAN, Kiernan, Ed. (1989). New Historicism and Cultural Materialism: A Reader. Birmingham: Arnold. SPILLER, Robert Elizabeth. 1970 " Literary Record. " The Aims and Methods of Scholarship in Modern day Languages and Literatür ha sido. Ed. Wayne Thorpe. next Ed. New York: MLA. VEESER, Aram L. Ed. (1994). The New Historicism Reader. Ny: Routledge.